While there have been several clinical trials of thioctic acid, most of them did not involve PWAs. However, these trials may help us understand what thioctic acid does, and how it may be of benefit to us. A1993 placebo-controlled trial concluded that thioctic acid was effective in reducing oxidative stress in people with diabetes. 80 people were randomized to either placebo or one of three antioxidants. These included: thioctic acid (600 mg), selenium (100mg), or vitamin E (1200 IE). Everyone on the antioxidants reported a reduction in oxidative stress, including reduced neuropathy and organ inflammation. There was no reported statistical difference between the antioxidants.